Women Empowerment In Rural Of India
Economy and Development Access to the Internet Rural India Digitalization Indian Economy Political Economy
With the help of the 72nd Constitutional Amendment, which introduced Panchayati Raj in India, women got one-third reservation for the post of local assemblies and sarpanch.
Accounts of women empowerment in rural India
This scheme expanded power and social power, gave women the power to take decisions and expanded the boundaries of democracy in the remote areas of the country. This included equal control over the region’s capital and its human and intellectual resources, which allowed women to improve their standard of living and lead a better life.
Such forums give courage to women indirectly and enable them to fight for their rights, which ultimately gives them political skills as well. With the help of the 72nd Constitutional Amendment, which introduced Panchayati Raj in India, women got one-third reservation for the post of local assemblies and sarpanch.
Women living in rural areas of India, who work in both skilled and unskilled labor sectors in the remotest parts of the country, have been able to claim their rights and demands through various means. He has sought credibility, independence and competitiveness for himself within his community by effectively using environmental concerns, socio-economic advancement and digital mediums.
However, to get a place in politics, women have to prove their ability in other socio-economic fields and also in various knowledge-based fields.
Emergence of empowerment of rural women in the economic sector
According to a study released in 2011 by the National Council for Applied Economic Research Center for Macro Consumer Research, interest rates on moneylenders can be 44 per cent higher at the highest level, compared to banks’ 12.6 per cent interest rate. In such a situation, it was very difficult for women to take loans at these high rates and start functioning.
Initial economic policies implemented for the purpose of upliftment of rural women were largely unsuccessful. The sub-plan of the Integrated Rural Development Program for Women and Child Development (DWCRA) in rural areas was started in 1982-83 in 50 rural districts.
This model of economic empowerment had some successes only in small areas of India such as Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu as understanding of rural credit network was not developed in most of the regions and hence they were not effective. After these schemes, micro-loan schemes such as Self-Help Groups (Self Help Group (SHG)) were launched which were run in partnership with local banks in the area. These SHGs are based on the principles of ‘peer monitoring’.
This enabled women to overcome their hesitation and weaknesses and was able to take loans from the bank instead of expensive moneylenders, in addition to buying and selling property and goods.
Under this model, it is accepted that the bank may or may not be located in the village, so each beneficiary is responsible and accountable to the entire group. The scheme was successful because it gave women financial knowledge and motivated them to work with economic discipline and earn a living.
This model of economic empowerment had some successes only in small areas of India such as Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu as understanding of rural credit network was not developed in most of the regions and hence they were not effective.
These groups of women operated with mutual support and participation, which improved the level of debt repayment and led to a significant reduction in payment defaults. Unlike earlier schemes, this model allowed women to undertake various economic activities with their speed and convenience Encouraged, because now a reliable source of borrowing was within his reach.
It is a historical and notable model, which started on 2 February 2006, with prominence in the first phase in 200 districts and then expanded to 130 districts in 2007-08. Through all these schemes, women have now been able to reach a level where their talk is heard and given importance in the panchayat and other centers of local administration.
Self-help groups made women financially independent and created financial stability in their lives that led them on the path of progress, but compared to the goals met by the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) The success of the policies was less, as 100 days of employment was guaranteed mainly under the MNREGA.
MNREGA provisions are also sensitive to the needs of mothers working in non-skilled jobs; The facility of crutches to handle children at work places, full accountability for work and payment, transparency in day-to-day work and the elimination of the role of contractors and middlemen have made the work easier for women and these conditions have made women Has worked in favor of. It has also reduced gender inequalities, and has given women bargaining power in their own right. However, there is still a wide wage gap between rural women and men.
In such cases it is possible that even the work done in lieu of payment may not empower women. Through the MNREGA, workers get the option to choose their work themselves. The main goal behind the introduction of MNREGA is that it gives people the right to equality socially and economically through employment and increases their self-esteem and confidence. In many cases it can also serve as a mechanism for rural women to identify their abilities and abilities.
This creates a ‘U-shape’ relationship between education and women’s employment, under which an illiterate or under-educated woman is ‘crisis-driven’ and seeks employment, while a better-educated woman will have better employment choices and better jobs. There are wide opportunities to get salary. Employment opportunities related to payments are mostly associated with government employment, ie employment created by the government for people who are not getting any other work, in English it is considered as “employer of the last resort”.
There is a ‘U-shape’ relationship between education and women’s employment, whereby an illiterate or under-educated woman is ‘crisis-driven’ and seeks employment, while a better-educated woman has better employment options and better pay. There are wide opportunities to get.
Empowerment of women through digitization
Following a severe drought in November 2016, as part of the poverty alleviation program conducted in Niger by Abdul Latif Jamil Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), unconditional money was transferred to some selected households in 96 villages. One group received cash, money was transferred online to another group and money was transferred both in cash and online to the third group.
With regard to technological advancement and digitization in rural areas, it is believed that new technologies cannot contribute to women empowerment. At the same time it is possible that this will deepen gender polarization and increase the distance or economic divide between rich and poor. In such a situation, the most important question is whether digital literacy can be used to reduce the gender gap and create gender equality in the ownership of mobile technology.
With regard to technological advancement and digitization in rural areas, it is believed that new technologies cannot contribute to women empowerment. At the same time it is possible that this will deepen gender polarization and increase the distance or economic divide between rich and poor.
When the results of this experiment were revealed, it was found that in areas where the money was transferred online, there was a 10 percent improvement in the dietary requirements of the children, as well as an increase in the yield of crops grown by women in those areas. This shows that through simple digital transfer of cash, it was possible for women to spend the right amount of money and negotiate within the family.
Empowering rural women through environmental channels
This committee identifies the poorest homes, and these men and women receive training as ‘bare foot solar engineers’ for 3 to 6 months. The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) launched the Lighting a Billion Lives program in these areas and started working with a handful of women from rural areas and turning them into ‘energy entrepreneurs’. The project has affected 5.65 million people globally and has supported more than 1,130,570 households worldwide since June 2017, covering 13 countries in addition to 24 states in India.
Many institutes associated with environmental research also generate employment for rural women. Through courses at Barefoot College in Tilonia, Rajasthan, women not only work as learners and trainees, but they have also become part of efforts to conserve sustainable power plants in villages. Working on community basis, an energy and environment committee is formed consisting of at least 30 percent women.
As a member of the International Solar Alliance (ISA), India has increased women’s participation in the sustainable energy sector. In such a situation, the next goal for India should now be to engage these rural women in skill development projects in various fields related to sustainable energy, so that they can also do better skills in this area.
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